. . . .
When the resistance increases through the range of motion, matching one’s leverage and mechanical advantage. Most common example would be using resistance bands, which are harder to pull the farther they are stretched.
Another example is hanging long chains from the bar; at the bottom of the lift movement, part of the chain rests on the floor and thus the weight is not felt… as you lift the bar, more and more chain is suspended in the air, supported by the lifter instead of the floor.
The phenomenon where during weight loss, a person’s metabolism can actually drop lower than can be explained by loss of mass. This makes it easier to re-gain the weight.
For example, someone who has weighed 300lbs for an extended time (and it has become their set point), when they finally lose weight down to 180lbs, their RMR will actually be lower than someone who has always been 180lbs. The magnitude of adaptive thermogenesis can vary greatly. Muscle mass, hormone status, and cold adaptation can probably all influence (and help negate) adaptive thermogenesis.
The ability to stick to something. The most successful dieters are those who find what works for them and they can stick to over time. All successful people have adherence to their chosen fields of expertise.
Prebiotic dietary fiber.
See “Fiber Shake” in the ‘Hacks & Tricks’ chapter.
Hormone released from muscle tissue during exercise and higher intensity cold exposure. Irisin lowers myostatin, thus allowing for increased muscle growth. Also kills certain types of cancer, and preserved telomere length, thus possible helpful in extending longevity.
Resistance exercise that works a particular muscle or area, typically moving only 1 joint. Example would be leg extensions, concentration curls, tricep pushdowns.
Compare to: compound lifts
|ketones (ketone bodies)
Fat-based molecules produced in the liver during extended fasting or carb restriction. Dominant fuel source (over glucose) during ketosis.
State of burning ketones instead of glucose for fuel. Target of ketogenic (no or low carb) diets. Even during ketosis, the brain will still only burn around 75% of its fuel from ketones, and will still get the other 25% from glucose, typically broken down and transformed from protein via gluconeogenesis.
There is no metabolic advantage to ketogenic diets. Energy balance still dominates.
Not to be confused with ketoacidosis.
Exercise tool composed of an iron ball (the “bell”) with a large, looping handle on the top. The kettlebell allows for ballistic training that is difficult to replicate with traditional dumbbells.
Kettlebells come in two designs; the classic “strongman” shaped KB, and the competition “girevoy sport” shaped KB.
One of the “7 types of intelligence,” kinesthetic perception is the awareness and control of one’s body and the ability to perform physical tasks. Those with high kinesthetic perception can learn athletic skills and maneuvers faster and more precisely than those with less of the perception.
The “super slow reps” exercise in the ‘Hacks & Tricks’ chapter is designed to help one enhance their kinesthetic perception.
See “mind-muscle connection.”
Muscles that are underdeveloped. Especially noticeable in compound lifts, where the lagging muscle functions as a ‘weakest link’ and holds back the lift.
Assistance exercises are designed to strengthen lagging muscle groups, thus bringing up the whole lift.
See: assistance work, see: muscle imbalance
|“leaving one in the tank”
Intentionally stopping a set before reaching muscle failure. Stopping even though one could do 1-2 more reps. Shown to be effective for muscle and strength gains, though not quite as effective as actually going to failure. Leaving one in the tank also means one doesn’t need a spotter.
Hormone released from fat cells when we eat food, especially carbohydrates. High leptin tells the body we’re full, reduces cravings, and increases metabolism and NEAT. Lower leptin induces cravings and lowers metabolism, trying to induce us to eat and regain fat.
Caloric deficits and cause a drop in leptin within days. Carb refeeds can temporarily raise leptin levels. Leptin also directly influences thyroid levels.
The obese tend to be leptin resistant, and eating does not have the same effect on hunger and RMR as it does on the lean.
When one is less responsive to leptin. More prevalent in the obese. When one eats, fat cells release leptin and cravings go down and energy goes up. In those resistant to leptin, these positive effects are less pronounced, hence they’re more prone to eat more and move less afterwards.
|limb to torso ratio
The relationship of limb length to torso length. Longer limbs to shorter torso bodies are naturally better at running and jumping, but may take on a ‘lanky’ appearance and have a harder time ‘filling out’ and putting on mass. Shorter limbed people can be better at certain activities, pressing motions for example. Easier for shorter limbed people to take on a ‘stalky’ appearance.
The creation of free fatty acids during caloric surplus. These FFA are then stored within fat cells, effectively making ‘more fat.’
|LISS (low intensity steady state cardio)
Light jogging or walking. Good for those looking to burn fat, as it’s not too stressful to the muscles, thus can be an easy way for passive calorie burning that does not interfere with resistance training.
|low carb (diets)
When people restrict their carb consumption to usually under 50 gm of carbs per day. Low carb diets can be beneficial for their hormonal effects (stable mood and energy levels) as well as their ability for the obese to mobilize and burn fat. Both low fat and low carb diets have shown success in studies in regards to weight loss.
|low fat (diets)
Restricting fat in the diet. Popular in bodybuilding and fitness competitor circles.
Both low fat and low carb diets have shown success in studies in regards to weight loss.
Protein, fats, and carbohydrates are the macronutrients. (alcohol is often considered the 4th macronutrient)
When one maintains a certain state or condition with lesser stimulus than what it took to initially achieve that state.
For example, once you achieve a certain level of musculature, it takes much less work to simply maintain that same level.
Physical tension placed on muscles. One of the primary factors that force muscles to grow (or maintain, during a caloric deficit)
Diet common in southern Greece, Italy, and Spain, where prevalence of the metabolic disorders were low. Consists of large amounts of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, with moderate amounts of olive oil, fish, chicken, cheese, and wine.
Hormone derived from tryptophan and produced by the pineal gland during darkness when approaching the circadian time of sleepiness. Also functions as an antioxidant. Supplemental melatonin does not induce tolerance and is safe for long-term use. Melatonin also activates brown fat, and is arguably the only supplement proven to consistently do so.
In animal models, late night light exposure reduces melatonin release, disrupts brown fat activity, and causes spontaneous weight gain.
Pertaining to stoking the metabolism and inducing fat loss.
Cyclical or targeted ketogenic diet proposed by powerlifter Mauro DiPasquale MD. The diet is comprised of periods of ketogenic eating, for burning fat, followed by periods of carb refeeds, to enhance anabolism. The book was largely advertised and targeted towards weightlifters in the mid 90’s.
The ability to easily and quickly use different fuel sources without suffering any negative effects. Being able to switch between burning fat or glucose without any emotional, behavioral, or performance problems.
Those who are insulin sensitive, have general physical preparedness and high work capacity, and are cold adapted will have a maximal level of metabolic flexibility.
One of the primary drivers of muscle growth during resistance exercise. During work, the muscles produce waste by-products. The presence of these substances causes the muscle to adapt.
Negatives, drop sets, and weighted stretches can all increase metabolic stress (see ‘Hacks & Tricks’ chapter)
Generic term used to describe exercise routines designed to burn a lot of calories, and produce a hormonal state beneficial to fat loss.
Interval training is a common form of metabolic training.
The sum total of chemical reactions occurring throughout the body. Usually described through the unit calories.
See “gut flora”
See: Kinesthetic perception, see: super slow reps (Hacks & Tricks chapter)
Contractile tissue allowing for movement. Muscle is a large user of blood glucose. Adequate muscle levels directly correlate to healthiness. When many people try to “lose weight,” upwards of half of what they lose can end up being muscle loss. Resistance training and dietary protein can help preserve muscle during a caloric deficit.
Where the muscle attaches to the bone via tendons. The exact location of the attachment is purely genetic, can be different from person to person, and can significantly change the leverage and thus torque that muscle exerts, directly effective athletic performance.
See “failure (training to failure)”
|muscle fiber recruitment
Muscles are composed of muscle fibers. These fibers – slow twitch and fast twitch – function differently. We use the least amount of fibers to do any given activity; specific activities will activate those particular muscle fibers as per the demands of the activity, which match the fiber type. As one trains more, harder, longer, or heavier, they can recruit more and more muscle fibers.
|muscle fiber type
Each muscle is made up of muscles bundles, which are made up of individual muscle cells, or fibers.
Fast twitch muscle fibers are strong and explosive, but tire quickly. Slow twitch fibers are weak, but have endurance. Most people have a balance of fiber types. World class level athletes tend to have a dominance of fiber type that helps with their sport.
Activities can eventually cause fibers to somewhat function for the activity involved, regardless of the type of fiber it is. (ie, slow twitch function more explosively, fast twitch develop endurance)
Muscles cannot push; they can only contract. For every part of the body, there are muscles on both ‘sides’ of the body. This allows movement of that body part (since muscles can only contract, you need a way to move back and forth).
When one side gets overdeveloped compared to its opposing side, a muscle imbalance has occurred.
Muscle imbalances can easily lead to injuries. So it is important to work both ‘sides’ of a limb or bodypart.
An example would be: having weak abs can lead to lower back problems. (back is too strong compared to the stomach)
See: “muscle attachment”
|muscle protein synthesis
A process where the muscle cells repair and create more muscle cells. Required to maintain and build more muscle.
Both diet and exercise can induce muscle protein synthesis. Combining both has the largest effect.
At least 20 grams of protein per meal are required to induce MPS. For older trainees, or those more experienced, a higher dose is probably required. It is ideal to mix fast and slow digesting types of protein. Once one triggers MPS via protein ingestion, one must wait until the levels of amino acids in the blood stream return close to normal before MPS can again be triggered. This is known as the refractory window.
Any exercise that taxes the muscles should induce some level of MPS, though higher intensity, higher load training produces a much greater effect.
Increasing the size and number of myofibrils – the contractile elements within muscles – which in turn causes an increase in total muscle size and strength. Often contrasted with “sarcoplasmic hypertrophy.”
|NEAT (non exercise activity thermogenesis)
All activity not considered exercise. Walking, standing, carrying groceries, daily activities. In some instances, NEAT can make up thousands of calories a day.
When people diet, some will subconsciously reduce their NEAT, thus reducing weight loss. For others, if they increase NEAT, they lower exercise frequency or intensity, again reducing weight loss.
‘Naturally’ lean people tend to spontaneously increase NEAT when they overeat by increasing fighting, walking, and so on.
Working or focusing on the negative (“eccentric”) part of an exercise movement, wherein the muscle lengthens.
Negatives can be therapeutic to muscles and joints, and serve as pre-hab against injuries. Negatives have been shown to be helpful for treating tendinitis. Also used as novel unorthodox training stimulus, to cause a mini-peak or quick adaptation in strength for those not used to doing them.
If one isn’t used to doing negatives, they have a high potential for causing DOMS, as they’re thought to be especially effective at traumatizing the myofibrillar (contractile) elements of muscle.
|“Never work a sore muscle”
The idea that one should never workout again if the target muscles are still sore from the last workout.
|non shivering thermogenesis
Cold exposure that is not strong enough to induce shivering. Typically gives a metabolic boost up to 15%, may also increase glucose uptake. Brown fat and skeletal muscle uncoupling.
Training beyond one’s ability to recover. Typically seen as a short-term scenario, as in days or maybe weeks.
Compare to: over training, see: burnout
Oxidation is the process where an election is pulled from an atom or molecule, used to generate energy.
In the body, this is a constant process involved in energy production within cells.
However oxidation can also cause damage to cells walls and DNA, and is thought to be causal in both cancer formation and aging.
During oxidation, electrons are moved and ‘donated’ from atoms and molecules to generate energy for the cell. These charged particles can damage or even pull other particles from bodily tissues. Probably most common causes damage to cell walls and can realign the components of DNA strands. Since DNA is self-replicating, an abnormal DNA strand will spread itself, and this is thought to be related to how certain cancers can initially form.
It should be noted that oxidation is normal and happens constantly within the body, which has means to balance and counteract any damage. Lowered health and immune system, and probably aging, reduces this ability to deal with oxidative damage.
So called ‘caveman’ diet. Claims of early versions of the diet have been largely discredited. Current day versions of the diet focus on eating whole food, lots of protein and fat from animal source, lots of vegetables, with minimal carbs.
“Flow.” Proverbial “being in the moment.” Losing oneself in the activity at hand, often with a sense of joy, effortlessness, and being carefree. During flow experiences, one often performs at their maximum potential.
|PEDs (performance enhancing drugs)
Substances that can increase tissue growth and repair. Steroids are one type of PED, but there are many others that have different effects. Some increase muscle strength, or mass, or recovery. Some increase metabolism and fat burning. Some increase focus and alertness. Some reduce pain. Some may increase properties such as the number of red blood cells, so one can carry more oxygen to muscles during endurance events.
A pattern of progressive overload where one systematically increases a particular variable(s) over time for the intended goal, usually competition or a new personal record outcome.
Common examples would be, over the course of six weeks, slowing increasing the weight on the bar each workout, while simultaneously decreasing the number of reps each workout.
When one’s training no longer yields improvements. Can turn into burnout or even injury if not dealt with. One of the best ways to avoid plateaus is by cycling intensity, exercise selection, volume, and so on.
Specialized exercises that are explosive in nature and utilize the stretch-reflex mechanism inherent to the neuromuscular system.
Many of the muscles on the back of the body, from the traps, upper and lower back, glutes, and hamstrings.
Responsible for pulling motions. (rowing, deadlifts, lat pulldowns, etc)
Explosiveness. Speed times strength. An attribute trained with plyometrics and dynamic speed work.
Satiety hormone released from the stomach when one eats protein. Partially responsible for the satiating effects of dietary protein.
Gradually increasing the variables to match adaptations and improvements. Increasing resistance, increasing reps, increasing sets, decreasing rest time, etc.
Macronutrient composed of amino acids. Dietary protein can induce muscle protein synthesis in the body, causing the muscles to rebuild themselves. Protein can also increase hormones that induce satiety. Protein has a high thermic effect, taking roughly 25-30% calories to digest it (100 calories worth of ingested protein will require for 25-30 calories from the body just to digest it). Higher protein diets are all associated with weight loss.
protein sparing modified fast (PSMF)
Dietary plan where one eats lean protein and little else. Extreme approach, usually used in ‘crash’ dieting. The high amount of protein will help preserve muscle mass.
The process of returning to the rested, normal state. Recovery between sets, recovery after a workout (for the next workout), etc. Protein, rest, sleep, proper diet, and cold thermogenesis can all help recovery.
After a period of caloric deficit or carb restriction, having a meal to serve as a surplus, to help boost certain hormones (leptin, thyroid, insulin), reduce cravings, boost metabolism, and give a psychological break from dieting.
See: cheat meal, see: carb loading
The time after inducing muscle protein synthesis during which one cannot induce it again. It is the time until blood amino acid levels drop back down to normal, and only then can one eat enough protein to induce MPS again.
A single movement of an exercise. One can also do partial reps, paused reps, and change the speed of the various parts of the rep.
Exercise against weights, designed to maintain or grow muscle tissue. A necessity during caloric deficits, as resistance training can help preserve muscle when dieting.
A type of starch not digested by the body, but instead broken down by the gut microbiome. Helps enhance insulin sensitivity and weight loss.
See “Fiber Shake” in the ‘Hacks & Tricks’ chapter.
resting metabolic rate
The energy burned by the body’s organs when one is totally at rest. Measured by indirect calorimetry while laying down or sitting.
Group of muscles in the shoulder. Highly susceptible to injury, especially for those with muscle imbalances. For example, over developed chest and under developed back will often yield rotator cuff problems.
Euphoric state experienced by endurance athletes, caused by the release of endorphins during training.
The sarcoplasmic is the components of the muscle cell not directly responsible for contraction; elements like glycogen and cell organelles.
Sarcoplasmic hypertrophy is the increasing of those components and the resultant increase in muscle size.
It was theorized that lower rep work (heavier resistance work) caused myofibrillar hypertrophy, while higher rep work (8-15 reps and above) caused sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. This theory is still being researched and is still controversial.
See: myofibrillar hypertrophy
Being satiated. No longer hungry. Can be a result of macronutrient ratios, hormonal response, volume of food, gut flora status, and even psychological and environmental factors.
Theory about the ‘normal’ weight one tends to stay at, influenced by biology; their leptin sensitivity, gut biome, ghrelin levels, and so on. According to set point theory, when one changes one side of the energy in / energy out equation, the other side will subconsciously adjust. For example, it’s been shown that if one reduces food intake, they will often subconsciously reduce NEAT, thus preserving overall energy balance and thus, overall body fat levels.
It is the way the body fights to maintain its current state.
A set is the total group of movements or repetitions of a given exercise, until one rests. Studies have shown that 3 sets of lesser reps are superior to a single, larger set, in regards to muscle strength and hypertrophy.
Theory about the ‘normal’ weight one stays at, in their current living condition. Is influenced by behaviors and environment. For example, if one has junk food in the house, they are more prone to eat that food after seeing it day after day. This is a behavioral dynamic. Taken as a whole over time, these sorts of influences can dictate body composition.
Highest level of cold thermogenesis. Can boost metabolism up to 500%. The only way to burn hundreds of calories in a few hours using cold exposure. Also causes significant changes blood sugar levels, as well as boosts the hormones irisin and adiponectin.
size vs strength
The idea that the two are not necessarily linked, and that a larger muscle is not always a stronger muscle.
Common example is powerlifters or Olympic lifters, vs bodybuilders; bodybuilders always have bigger muscles, yet powerlifters and Oly lifters are always stronger (when testing maximum strength)
There are several reasons for this. Powerlifters and Oly lifters train their muscles and nervous sytem for max strength. Bodybuilders typically do not. Thus there is a neurological difference. Also strength training may enhance the myofibrillar (contractile) elements of muscle, whereas bodybuilders may enhance more of the water and organelle aspects of the muscle cell (sarcoplasmic hypertrophy). So they could have larger muscles, but not necessarily stronger muscles.
Also both powerlifting and Oly lifting are highly technical sports. If one hasn’t perfected their technique, they will not be able to lift as much, regardless of strength.
Devices used to pinch the skin at several places on the body so as to measure body fat percentage. Subject to user error. Even when done properly, usually 2-4% points higher than more accurate DEXA scans.
Sleep is used to rejuvenate the mind and body. When people learn new information or have new experiences or even traumatic experiences, they tend dream more, implying dreaming is associated with processing new information.
If someone is kept from sleeping, they’ll eventually start hallucinating, essentially dreaming while awake. Sleep is also when we have the largest release of growth hormone, rebuilding the body. Lack of sleep as we age may be responsible for the age-related reduction in testosterone in men, since sleep deprivation lowers testosterone levels. Lack of sleep also increases food cravings and is correlated to various health issues.
|slow carb diet
Diet popularized in the book the “4 Hour Body.” Slow carbs are carbs that also have a lot of fiber and resistant starch. This usually means legumes, beans, and lentils, as well as cruciferous vegetables.
Slow carbs are carbs that also have a lot of fiber and resistant starch. While this usually means legumes, beans, and lentils, potatoes can also have a lot of resistant starch.
See “Potato Hack” diet in the “Best Products in 1 Place” chapter.
|slow twitch fibers
Slow twitch muscle fibers are smaller muscle fibers that are not strong, but have endurance properties. They have a rich supply of blood vessels (and are thus colored red) for adequate blood supply (oxygen) for slow burning energy. Endurance and low intensity activities engage slow twitch muscle fibers.
Compare to fast twitch muscle fibers.
Protein derived from soy beans, controversial because of claims that soy can act on estrogen receptors in both men and women, but findings are mixed.
Lifting with lighter weights and focusing on speed and explosiveness. Used to increase power and explosiveness. May also allow one to focus on form and may work as a de-training period. Often done with accommodating resistance (bands and/or chains)
|The process of selectively removing fat from specific and targeted areas of the body. Usually not possible except with cosmetic surgical techniques, however applied cold exposure has been shown to potentially cause apoptosis of subcutaneous fat. While the Gut Buster can recreate those conditions, it is not endorsed for that use.
state dependent learning
The phenomenon that when one consistently performs and practices an activity in a certain state of mind, they can more readily and efficiently both achieve that state of mind and perform that activity when they are again in that same state of mind.
Where one works all sets at a given station, before moving onto the next station.
Substances that can enhance attention and focus while giving a metabolic boost.
Caffeine for example, can help with workouts, increases attention, and has a mild 2-3% metabolic boost.
|strength / endurance spectrum
All athletic activity falls somewhere on the strength / endurance spectrum.
Ranges from the hardest, heaviest, most intense and explosive effort but shortest duration on one end, and at the other extreme, the easiest, lowest effort and intensity, but for an almost unlimited duration.
All activities on the spectrum bring risk and benefits, some specific for that particular range. During caloric deficits, it is advised that one focus on the strength and hypertrophy areas of activity, as these best preserve muscle tissue and maintain resting metabolic rate.
|stretch (static stretch)
Holding the muscle in an elongated state. Current theory does not endorse cold, static stretches as a warmup strategy. Instead it is advised to do an active warmup, with optional pulse stretches added in.
See: active warmup, see: pulse stretching
Mechanism built into the neuromuscular system. When a muscle stretches, it ‘loads’ the muscle and the consequent contraction is far more powerful than without the stretch.
A type of fat that makes up our “trouble spots” where fat is hardest to burn off. Stubborn fat is physiologically different than regular fat. It had less receptors to open up and empty its contents (free fatty acids) and also has less of a vascular (blood) supply. This is why the ears of stubborn fat —
|super slow reps
Doing reps at an extremely slow speed, at a tempo so slow as to barely be moving. Usually only do 1-3 reps per muscle group per workout, doing bodyweight movements, such as a squat or pushup.
Good for beginners to learn technique during basic movements and to enhance the mind-muscle connection. Good for advanced trainees to use for a de-training period.
Probably also good for joint health and rehab.
Doing two or more exercises immediately after one another, often hitting the same or opposing muscle groups.
For example, bench press followed by pushups (same muscles), or bench press followed by pullups (opposing).
Super-sets are not necessarily metabolic in nature; they shouldn’t necessarily cause heavy breathing, and can still be used for strength and hypertrophy, whereas true metabolic work tends to be geared more towards fat burning.
|targeted ketogenic diet
Ketogenic diet where one eats carbs at a particular time, usually around a workout.
|TDEE (total daily energy expenditure)
All calories burned during a period of time. This will come from:
– Resting metabolic rate (organs)
– Cold exposure
– Stimulants and supplements
The chromosomal ends of DNA strands. As cells reproduce, DNA is duplicated, and with each duplication, there is slightly less telomere material at each end. This gradual decreasing of DNA telomere is thought to be related to aging.
The hormone irisin, increased by both exercise and cold thermogenesis, has been shown to preserve telomere length during DNA duplication and cellular reproduction.
The speed at which one performs a movement of an exercise. Different speeds can have different effects and cause different adaptations to the muscle and nervous system.
The sensation one feels duing resistance training, often during the hypertrophy area of the strength/endurance spectrum, where the targeted muscle feels extremely pumped up and full.
The pump does not necessarily correlate to strength or size increases, and probably shouldn’t be a concrete goal during training.
|thermal effect of food
The amount of calories (energy) it takes to break down and digest food.
Protein has a high TEF at around 25-30%. Meaning it takes around 35% equivalent calories to digest a given amount of protein (25 calories to digest 100 calories worth of protein) Both fat and carbs have a low TEF.
Another phrase for cold thermogenesis.
Hormones release from the thyroid gland in the neck, thyroid levels influence metabolism, energy levels, and perception of body temperature. Restricting calories and carbs can cause a drop in thyroid levels. This effect is more pronounced in women. Carb refeeds can elevate thyroid levels for a time.
|time under tension (TUT)
One of the drivers of muscle growth during resistance exercise. It is the duration that a muscle is held under contraction.
Pause reps, slow reps, negatives, and isometrics can all have a long TUT.
When the body adapts to a thing, requiring a greater dosage, intensity, or methodology to achieve the same effect.
Applies to all manner of human interaction.
The practice of cycling (diet, exercise, and supplementation) is designed to help work around the body’s ability to adapt and build tolerance.
training to failure
Doing an exercise until you can do it no more (at least during that set or time period). Typically used to describe resistance training, when you cannot do any more reps, cannot lift the weight any more, during that given set.
Training to failure recruits more muscle fibers within the muscle itself, yet studies have shown a minimal benefit to training to failure.
Thus training to failure is not necessarily recommended. (Also training to failure for certain exercises means one would need a spotter to help with the weight at the end)
Training to failure will probably results in maximum hypertrophy (size) of the muscle… but the increased demand for effort means one may not be able to constantly train to failure without fear of eventual injury or burnout.
Probably best to use failure strategically, and not as a constant practice. Also consider doing failure sets on isolation movements (as opposed to large, compound exercises) and even on machines, which eliminate the need for stabilization as well as spotters.
Compare to “leaving one in the tank.”
A professor ate a diet of twinkies, junk food, and protein shakes, intentionally maintained a caloric deficit, and lost around 27bls in two months.
Reinforces the principle of energy balance as the most important factor in weight loss.
Cranial nerve associate with many autonomic processes, including digestion. Having a physically full stomach (lots of food volume) triggers satiety via the vagus never.
Holding the breath during heavy lifting, so as to brace and protect the spine and torso. Done by holding and pushing the breath against a closed windpipe.
Volume of oxygen and breathing during exercise. Higher VO2 max means you can work harder, longer during power and endurance events.
VO2 max training is ideally done with lighter weights, usually around 60% of one’s maximal weight.
Total amount of work. Total reps for a given muscle group or in a given workout.
Usually describing weight loss due to glycogen depletion. Common on low-carb diets. Water weight is not fat weight; losing water weight is not necessarily in any way beneficial or indicative of progress, unless it is intentional.
Extended periods of ‘water weight loss,’ which is to say, depleted glycogen, means one may eventually lose that muscle tissue, thus end up with a reduced RMR and lesser overall health.
While commonly used in normal conversation, an inaccurate description of what one’s goal should really be. One should strive for fat loss, not ‘weight’ loss. Especially since much of the ‘weight’ loss regular people experience can in fact be muscle loss, in the form of water weight (glycogen) loss.
Long term loss of that glycogen can mean losing that muscle tissue. That means lower metabolism, lower work capacity, and sub-maximal health.
Exercise technique where one rests and holds the weight at the stretch portion of the repetition, usually done at the end of a set. Increases metabolic stress significantly.
Found in milk, whey is probably the fastest digesting and most immediately anabolic protein. Whey can spike insulin like simple carbohydrates, and can cause an energy crash in some. Can also allow for rebound catabolism several hours after the does. Therefore best to mix with casein, to even out the insulin spike and eliminate catabolism.
|Phenomenon described by Lyle McDonald where people who are cutting weight may seem to stall and experience no weight loss for a time… and then lose a lot of weight all at once. This is thought to happen because the fat cells have indeed emptied their free fatty acids, but the cell then temporarily fills up with water. Thus the person looks and weighs the same, until the cells give up the water, and they appear to lose a lot of weight at once. In reality, they had already lost the fat weight.
More recent findings suggest this isn’t a matter of fat cells filling with water, but general water retention due to diet (carbs, salt intake), hormone levels, muscle glycogen, and so on.
In exercise circles, the ability to do the demands of the routine in an efficient and productive manner, recover from the workout, progress, and recovery to do more. The scope of work capacity goes beyond the individual workout, but spans over time.
Increasing resistance, reps, time under tension, reducing rest periods, increasing speed or distance, and improving any or all of these variables, while adapting and recovering and repeating.
Those with a higher work capacity will get faster, stronger, bigger, leaner, and healthier, and they’ll do it in less time.
Conversely, the body adapts to everything, this can make increasing work capacity more difficult, thus the need for cycling.
zone (“being in the zone”)
See “flow,” “peak experience”